Immigration flux from the district of Porto to the state of Pará: rubber, conflicts, epidemics and gender (1834-1930)
Abstract The article analyzes immigration from the Porto district to Pará, between 1834 and 1930, through passport records from the Civil Government of Porto. It observes the flow through the decades, emphasizing the economic and social issues associated to these displacements as well as specific aspects such as epidemics and social conflicts, highlighting the “Revolta da Cabanagem” (Cabanagem Rebellion) on a local scale and the First World War on a global scale. It analyzes the influence of passport holders’ companions and re-migration on migrants’ flows, followed by research into the profile of the immigrants regarding origin and the naturality by district and Portuguese “concelhos”. Finally, the article problematizes female migration and the gender issues it involves, pointing to the asymmetry of women’s displacement, always smaller in relation to men, but showing growth in the first decades of the twentieth century.