Impact of Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation on Kidney Function

Abstract Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is frequently present in patients with aortic valve disease. Decreased kidney perfusion as a consequence of reduced cardiac output may contribute to renal dysfunction in this setting. Objective: Given the potential reversibility of kidney hypoperfusion after valve repair, this study aimed to analyze the impact of percutaneous transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on kidney function. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 233 consecutive patients who underwent TAVI in a single center between November 2008 and May 2016. We assessed three groups according to their baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (mL/min/1.73 m2): Group 1 with eGFR ≥ 60; Group 2 with 30 ≤ eGFR < 60; and Group 3 with eGFR < 30. We analyzed the eGFR one month and one year after TAVI in these three groups, using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula to calculate it. Results: Patients from Group 1 had a progressive decline in eGFR one year after the TAVI procedure (p < 0.001 vs. pre-TAVI). In Group 2 patients, the mean eGFR increased one month after TAVI and continued to grow after one year (p = 0.001 vs. pre-TAVI). The same occurred in Group 3, with the mean eGFR increasing from 24.4 ± 5.1 mL/min/1.73 m2 before TAVI to 38.4 ± 18.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 one year after TAVI (p = 0.012). Conclusions: For patients with moderate-to-severe CKD, kidney function improved one year after the TAVI procedure. This outcome is probably due to better kidney perfusion post-procedure. We believe that when evaluating patients that might need TAVI, this ‘reversibility of CKD effect’ should be considered.