Increased Foliar Activity of Isoproturon+Tribenuron and Pyroxsulam Against Little Seed Canary Grass and Field Bindweed by Proper Adjuvant Selection in Wheat
ABSTRACT: Using an adjuvant to optimize and increase the foliar activity of post emergence herbicides is an acceptable way to reduce their side effects. Field researches were conducted to detect a suitable adjuvant for two post-herbicides namely, isoproturon+tribenuron and pyroxsulam against little seed canary grass (Phalaris minor) and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis). Treatments were, isoproturon+tribenuron at 1,025 g a.i. ha-1 (recommended dose) and pyroxsulam at 140.6 g a.i. ha-1 (recommended dose) alone or their reduced dose (75% of the recommended dose) isoproturon+tribenuron at 769 and pyroxsulam at 105.5 g a.i. ha-1, tank mixed with three different adjuvants viz. alkylethersulphate sodium salt at 400, fatty alcohol ethoxylate at 200 and sunflower oil at 1,000 mL ha-1. These treatments were applied at the two to three leaf stages of weeds. All the adjuvants enhanced the efficacy of herbicides; however, maximum herbicide efficacy against P. minor (93.50-97.66%) and C. arvensis (82-100%) was achieved with the application of isoproturon+tribenuron plus alkylethersulphate sodium salt, showing the lowest total weed dry weight (1.48, 0.88 g m-2). The maximum NPK-uptake was associated to the untreated control. Nutrient saving (55-95% N, 43-92% P, 55-95% K) was enhanced by the addition of all adjuvants to herbicides, with better weed control. The maximum yield (41 - 43% increase over weedy check) and yield attributes were recorded with reduced rates of isoproturon+tribenuron plus alkylethersulphate sodium salt, followed by the recommended rate of the same herbicide applied alone. In contrast, sunflower oil with pyroxsulam exerted greater control of little seed canary grass and field bindweed with more yield and yield related traits than alkylethersulphate sodium salt and fatty alcohol ethoxylate with pyroxsulam. These results demonstrated the improvement in the performance of reduced rates of isoproturon+tribenuron with the inclusion of alkylethersulphate sodium salt, with a dose higher than or equal to the recommended dose of the same herbicide, and this is the most cost-effective combination.