Increased expression of ID2, PRELP and SMOC2 genes in patients with endometriosis

Endometriosis is a benign, estrogen-dependent disease with symptoms such as pelvic pain and infertility, and it is characterized by the ectopic distribution of endometrial tissue. The expression of the ID2, PRELP and SMOC2 genes was compared between the endometrium of women without endometriosis in the proliferative phase of their menstrual cycle and the eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with endometriosis in the proliferative phase. Paired tissue samples from 20 women were analyzed: 10 from endometrial and peritoneal endometriotic lesions and 10 from endometrial and ovarian endometriotic lesions. As controls, 16 endometrium samples were collected from women without endometriosis in the proliferative phase of menstrual cycle. Analysis was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was no significant difference between gene expression in the endometrium of women with and without endometriosis. The ID2 gene expression was increased in the most advanced stage of endometriosis and in ovarian endometriomas, the PRELP was more expressed in peritoneal lesions, and the SMOC2 was highly expressed in both peritoneal and endometrioma lesions. Considering that the genes studied participate either directly or indirectly in cellular processes that can lead to cell migration, angiogenesis, and inappropriate invasion, it is possible that the deregulation of these genes caused the development and maintenance of ectopic tissue.