Influence of biofilm formation on the mechanical properties of enamel after treatment with CPP-ACP crème

Abstract: The study aimed to investigate the effects of bacterial biofilms on changes in the surface microhardness of enamel treated with casein phosphopeptide—amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) with and without fluoride. Human enamel blocks with incipient caries-like lesions were divided into four groups of 13: G1: Saliva (Control); G2: fluoride dentifrice (Crest™, 1100 ppm as NaF); G3: CPP-ACP (MI Paste; Recaldent™); and G4: CPP-ACPF (MI Paste Plus; Recaldent™ 900 ppm as NaF). The specimens were soaked in demineralizing solution for 6 h and remineralized in artificial saliva for 18 h alternately for 10 days. The dentifrice was prepared with deionized water in a 1 : 3 ratio (w/w) or applied undiluted in the case of the CPP-ACP group. The surface microhardness (SMH) was evaluated at baseline, after artificial caries, after pH cycling and treatment with dentifrices, and after incubation in media with Streptococcus mutans for biofilm formation. The biofilms were exposed once a day to 2% sucrose and the biofilm viability was measured by MTT reduction. The percentage of change in surface microhardness (%SMHC) was calculated for each block. The data were analyzed by nonparametric test comparisons (α = 0.05). The %SMHC values observed in G2 were different from those of G1, G3, and G4 (p < 0.05). After biofilm formation, %SMHC was positive in G2 and G4 when compared to G1 and G3, but resistance to demineralization after biofilm formation was similar in all groups. In conclusion, the presence of biofilms did not influence the treatment outcomes of anticaries products.