Influence of cutting tool material on the machinability of ABNT 4340 steel in turning

ABSTRACT In the present work the aim was to understand the phenomena associated with the machining of ABNT 4340 steel using carbide and cermet cutting tools, both with chipper geometry for light (LP) and medium machining (MP). In this sense, the influence of the variation of the feed rate, the chip breaker and the cutting tool material on the parameters of process response, shear force, shear strength, chip form and analysis of the outlet and gap surfaces of the inserts during the turning operation. Initially, a complete factorial design 23 was used for analysis of shear strength and roughness. In relation to the shear force analysis, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the cutting tool material and the feed significantly affected the cutting force, the lowest values being obtained with the cermet cutting tool and the lowest level of advancement. As for Rq roughness, different levels of tool materials or chip breakers were not sufficient to significantly alter the value of Rq. In relation to the chip, the advance and the type of chipbreaker influenced its shape. As a last analysis, it was not possible to identify wear on the cutting tools, for the established cutting parameters and cut path, however, the EDS analysis pointed to the adhesion of material to the clearance and exit surfaces for both tools evaluated.