Influence of hesperidin and vitamin C on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in rats treated with sucrose overload

ABSTRACT We evaluated the influence of hesperidin and vitamin C (VitC) on glycemic parameters, lipid profile, and DNA damage in male Wistar rats treated with sucrose overload. Rats were divided into six experimental groups: I-water control; II-sucrose control; III-hesperidin control; IV-VitC control; V-co-treatment of sucrose plus hesperidin; VI-co-treatment of sucrose plus VitC. We measured the levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, LDL-c, fasting glucose, and glycated hemoglobin (A1C). DNA damage was evaluated in blood and brain cells using the comet assay and the micronucleus test was used to evaluate chromosomal damages in the rat bone marrow. Co-treatment with VitC, but not with hesperidin, normalized the serum glucose. No effect of co-treatments was observed on A1C. The co-treatment with VitC or hesperidin did not influence the lipid profile (p>0.05). Rats co-treated with hesperidin had a significantly lower DNA damage level in blood (p<0.05) and brain (p<0.05). Rats treated with VitC only, but not those co-treated with VitC plus sucrose, had significantly higher DNA damage in brain (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed in the results of micronucleus test (p>0.05). Hesperidin and VitC showed different effects on sucrose and DNA damage levels. While VitC lowered the serum glucose, hesperidin reduced the DNA damage.