Is fibroblast growth factor 23 a new cardiovascular risk marker in gestational diabetes?

ABSTRACT Objective This study was designed to compare the serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) among patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and healthy pregnant women, and to evaluate the association between hormonal and metabolic parameters. Subjects and methods A total of 82 pregnant women were consecutively enrolled in the study. Of these, 46 were diagnosed as having GDM; the remaining 36 healthy pregnant women served as controls in a cross-sectional study design. The womens’ ages ranged from 22 to 38 years and gestational ages, from 24 to 28 weeks. Serum samples were analyzed for FGF23 levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Serum FGF23 levels were increased in patients with GDM compared with controls (median, 65.3 for patients with GDM vs. 36.6 ng/mL for healthy controls; p = 0.019). Mean fasting glucose (105.6 ± 7.4 vs. 70.2 ± 7.2 mg/dL, p < 0.001), HbA1c (5.6 ± 0.5 vs. 4.9 ± 0.5%, p < 0.001), insulin (median, 11.1 vs. 8.7 µIU/mL, p = 0.006) and HOMA-IR (3.0 (1.8) vs 1.4 (0.6), p < 0.001) levels were significantly higher in patients with GDM than in controls. Serum FGF23 level was positively correlated with body mass index (r2 = 0.346, p < 0.05), FPG (r2 = 0.264, p < 0.05), insulin (r2 = 0.388, p < 0.05), HOMA-IR (r2 = 0.384, p < 0.05). Conclusion Serum FGF23 levels were higher in women with GDM compared with controls. The present findings suggest that FGF23 could be a useful marker of cardiovascular disease in GDM.