Laparoscopic nephrectomy for urolithiasis: when is better to avoid it.

ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate the risk factors for conversion to open surgery in laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN) for urolithiasis. Methods: we reviewed data on all patients over 18 years of age submitted to LN between January 2006 and May 2013 at our institution. We analyzed the Charlson's index, the ASA score, renal function by the equation and stage of MDRD (Modification of Diet in Renal Disease), preoperative computed tomography (CT) findings, complications by the Clavien-Dindo classification and conversion rate. We used logistic regression analysis to determine the risk factors for conversion. Results: eighty-four patients underwent LN, 16 (19%) sustaining convertion to open surgery due to the strong adhesion of the renal hilum to the adjacent organs. Other causes associated with conversion were excessive bleeding (n=6) and lesion of the large intestine (n=3). In the univariate analysis, previous renal surgery, perirenal fat blurring, renal abscess, perirenal abscess, pararenal abscess, fistula, adherence to the liver or spleen, and adherence to the intestine were associated with conversion. In the multivariate analysis, pararenal abscess and adherence to the intestine were significant risk factors for conversion. Conclusion: pararenal abscess and bowel adhesions demonstrated in the preoperative CT are risk factors for conversion to open surgery in LN due to urolithiasis.