Leptospirosis in Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil: 2007-2014
ABSTRACT: Objective: to analyze the distribution of leptospirosis according to sociodemographic, epidemiologic, and clinical characteristics, assistance time, rainfall and spatial distribution in Campinas/SP in the period from 2007 to 2014. Method: This is an ecological study using information from the confirmed cases. A descriptive analysis was carried out according to the selected variables. The relationship between the cases and rainfall was verified through the Spearman’s correlation coefficient. The cases/deaths were georeferenced per areas classified according to socioenvironmental deprivation indexes in Campinas. Results: From the 264 cases, 76.1% occurred in men, 58,4% in the 20 to 49 years old age range. Approximately 55% were hospitalized, with a prevalence of clinical-laboratorial diagnoses of 89.4%, and the lethality was 10.6%. The urban area concentrated 74.2% of the cases, and 48,9% occurred in the household environment. The main risk factor was evidence of the presence of rodents at the site. There was strong correlation between the incidence of cases and rainfall (p < 0.05) in 2010 to 2012. A higher concentration of the cases was observed in the Center-Southwest region. Spatial distribution of cases/deaths showed clusters in regions classified at lower socioeconomic levels. Conclusions: The patterns of occurrence of leptospirosis in Campinas showed similarity with other Brazilian municipalities. The identification of areas with higher incidence of cases/deaths contributes to the adoption of strategies for intervention and prioritization of resources aiming at the reduction of the risk of infection and at early treatment for those affected.