Magnetic behavior of materials through statistical mechanics

Abstract An important problem in studying magnetic materials is to know how these systems behave in the presence of an external magnetic field. The answer to that problem is in the magnetic susceptibility. In this work, we performed a statistical approach of the magnetic properties of materials that take into account their microscopic interactions. Our intent is to present in a didactic and accessible way to an undergraduate student the origins of the magnetic phenomenon and its thermodynamic, paramagnetic, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic phases, calculating its susceptibilities and analyzing its behavior as a function of temperature.