Mandibular Protraction Appliance Effects in Class II Malocclusion in Children, Adolescents and Young Adults
Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the mandibular protraction appliance (MPA) for treating mild to moderate Class II malocclusion at different stages of dentofacial development. Lateral radiographs were evaluated before (T0) and at the end (T1) of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliance associated with MPA. Sixty-five consecutively treated patients were divided according to the stage of dentofacial development: 21 children in late mixed dentition, 22 adolescents and 22 young adults with full permanent dentition. The differences between and within groups were analyzed by MANOVA at p<0.05. The correction of anteroposterior discrepancy (Wits) was significantly reduced in all development stages (p<0.01), with no difference between groups. Class II was corrected predominantly by dental changes in the mandibular arch, with accentuated proclination of the mandibular incisors and mesial displacement of mandibular molars. The MPA had no skeletal effects in any of the groups, except for a mild reduction of SNA (p=0.018) and ANB angles (p<0.0001) among the mixed dentition children. With regard to soft-tissue profile, facial convexity decreased significantly in all groups (p<0.01). In conclusion, the MPA associated with fixed appliance corrected the Class II occlusion, basically by a mandibular arch protrusion. A mild skeletal maxillary change was significant only when this treatment protocol began during mixed dentition.