Metabolic syndrome components are associated with oxidative stress in overweight and obese patients
ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of the body mass index (BMI) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) parameters on oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects. Subjects and methods: Individuals were divided into three groups: the control group (G1, n = 131) with a BMI between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2, the overweight group (G2, n = 120) with a BMI between 25 and 29.9 kg/m2 and the obese group (G3, n = 79) with a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Results: G3 presented higher advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) in relation to G1 and G2 (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively) whereas G2 and G3 had lower levels of nitric oxide (NO) (p = 0.009 and p = 0.048, respectively) compared to G1. Adjusted for the presence of MetS to evaluate its influence, the levels of AOPPs did not differ between the groups, whereas NO remained significantly lower. Data adjusted by the BMI showed that subjects with higher triacylglycerol levels had higher AOPPs (p = 0.001) and decreased total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter/uric Acid (p = 0.036). Subjects with lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels and patients with higher blood pressure showed increased AOPPs (p = 0.001 and p = 0.034, respectively) and lower NO levels (p = 0.017 and p = 0.043, respectively). Subjects who presented insulin resistance had higher AOPPs (p = 0.024). Conclusions: Nitrosative stress was related to BMI, and protein oxidation and nitrosative stress were related to metabolic changes and hypertension. MetS components were essential participants in oxidative and nitrosative stress in overweight and obese subjects.