Metamemory monitoring in Alzheimer’s disease A systematic review

ABSTRACT Metamemory is the awareness of one’s own knowledge and control of memory, and refers to the online ability to gather information about the current state of the memory system. Objective: Metamemory is one’s own knowledge and control of memory. A systematic review was performed to identify the types of tasks used for evaluating metamemory monitoring, the stimuli used in these tasks, their limitations and the outcomes in people with Alzheimer’s disease (PwAD). Methods: This systematic review followed PRISMA methodology. A search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science electronic databases was carried out in September, 2018, identifying experimental investigations of metamemory and dementia. Results: We included 21 studies. The most common tasks used were judgement of learning, feeling of knowing, judgement of confidence and global prediction. The rates of discrepancy between PwAD and caregivers still need further research. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was the most used list of words. PwAD are able to accurately rate their memory functioning and performance, when the evaluation is done soon afterwards. PwAD tend to overestimate their functioning and performance when the judgement involves forward-looking vision. Conclusion: In the context of metamemory impairment, clinicians and caregivers should seek interventions aiming to identify compensatory styles of functioning. This systematic review provides initial evidence for the use of metamemory measures as part of broader assessments evaluating Alzheimer’s disease.