Nanopharmaceuticals and Their Applications in Bladder Cancer Therapy: a Mini Review
The primary treatment for high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is based on surgery by transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), followed by intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) to prevent recurrence and to reduce the tumor progression. However, BCG therapy shows several undesirable effects. The current treatment on NMIBC is doxorubicin (DOX), but with high toxicity. Our nanotechnology strategy was done through scaffolds for the NMIBC treatment: graphene oxide (GO) and a nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC). A GO hybrid for administration of DOX and small interfering RNA (siRNA) was developed. This hybrids administered in vivo against NMIBC in rats gave absence of lesions. NLC was prepared by using a mixture of two lipids stabilized by a surfactant and DOX by high homogenization pressure technique. In this case showed a 20% of the animals exhibited benign lesions (papillary hyperplasia), however, in the presence of siRNA reached 40% of rats with benignant lesions. These two scaffolds are potential new drugs for DOX for bladder cancer treatment without any cardiotoxicity problems.