Nrf2, NF-κB and PPARβ/δ mRNA Expression Profile in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease
Abstract Background: Oxidative stress and inflammation are present in coronary artery disease (CAD) and are linked to the activation of the transcription nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). To attenuate these complications, transcription factors like nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) can be activated to inhibit NF-κB. However, the available data on expression of NF-κB, Nrf2 and PPARβ/δ in CAD patients are limited. Objective: To evaluate the expression of the transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 and PPAR��/�� in CAD patients. Methods: Thirty-five patients (17 men, mean age 62.4 ? 7.55 years) with CAD and twelve patients (5 men, mean age 63.50 ? 11.46 years) without CAD were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and processed for mRNA expression of Nrf2, NF-κB, NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) and PPARβ/δ mRNAs using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: There was no difference in the mRNA expressions of Nrf2 (1.35 ? 0.57), NF-κB (1.08 ? 0.50) or in the antioxidant enzyme NQO1 (1.05 ? 0.88) in the CAD group compared to the group without CAD (1.16 ? 0.76, 0.95 ? 0.33, 0.81 ? 0.55, respectively). However, PPARβ/δ was highest expressed in the CAD group (1.17 ? 0.86 vs. 0.56 ? 0.34, p = 0.008). Conclusion: The main finding of this study was the PPARβ/δ being more expressed in the PBMC of patients with CAD compared to the control group, whereas no differences were observed in Nrf2 or NF-κB mRNA expressions.