ABSTRACT Aquatic sediments are widely used for the evaluation of anthropogenic contamination due to their ability to adsorb particles and contaminants, making them historical environmental archives. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the contamination of the Pelotas River sediments, at the border between the states of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul, by organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds, determining the ecological risk. The evaluation was carried out with quarterly sediment collections in 8 points, totalizing four campaigns within one year, with the aid of the Peterson dredger. Among organochlorines, p'p'DDT stands out regarding environmental persistence, representing 53.23% of the contaminated samples, with values varying up to 0.158 ppb. As for the organophosphates, Methyl Parathion obtained larger representation with 48.4% of the contaminated samples, with concentrations ranging up to 2.42 ppb. The ecological risk of selected organochlorines demonstrated no problems associated with the biota. Regarding the organophosphates studied, Disulfoton presented a risk factor with significant potential for adverse effects on organisms. Therefore, the need for monitoring and sustainability in the use and application of pesticides is well known, aiming at environmental quality and the preservation of natural resources.