Omega 3 Fatty Acids Reduce the Triglyceride Levels in Rats with Apical Periodontitis

Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the prophylactic and therapeutic supplementation with omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (w-3 PUFAs) on the lipid profile and periapical bone resorption in rats with apical periodontitis. Forty male rats were divided into groups: control rats (C), rats treated with w-3 PUFAs (C+O), rats with pulp exposure-induced apical periodontitis (AP), and rats with AP treated with w-3 PUFAs (AP+O). The administration of w-3 PUFAs was carried out orally once a day for 15 days before pulp exposure and, subsequently, for an additional 30 days after pulp exposure. AP was induced by exposing pulpal tissues to the oral environment. The samples were collected after 30 days. Triglycerides and cholesterol levels were enzymatically measured using the Trinder method. The jaws were collected and submitted for histological analysis. Two-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis, and the significance was set at p<0.05. The triglyceride levels of the AP group were significantly higher than those of the C, C+O and AP+O groups (p<0.05). However, the difference in the cholesterol levels among the groups was not significant (p>0.05). Rats with AP showed larger areas of bone resorption as well as higher inflammatory intensity compared with rats with AP supplemented with w-3 PUFAs. It may be concluded that the presence of multiple AP foci increased the triglyceride levels. In addition, omega 3 supplementation might reduce these levels in rats with AP, as well as the bone resorption areas of periapical tissues.