Paleoenvironmental evolution of the coastal plain of Southern Brazil: palynological data from a Holocene core in Santa Catarina State
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ABSTRACT This paper presents a paleoenvironmental reconstruction from palynological analyses of a sedimentary core of Holocene age, drilled at municipality of Garopaba (Santa Catarina), Southern Brazil. A total of 46 samples was collected for palynological analyses in the 450 cm-long core PCSC-3, as also three samples for radiocarbon dating and granulometric analyses. The palynological content includes 84 taxa related to pollen grains of angiosperms (38) and gimnosperm (3), spores of pteridophyta (16) and bryophyta (2), spores of fungi (8), algae (3), acritarchs (3), dinoflagellate cysts (2) and microforaminiferal linings (1). Three specimens of acritarchs are described and illustrated in detail. Three palynological phases were defined based on changes in assemblages: Phase I, Phase II and Phase III. The Phase I is characterized as a lagoonal paleoenvironment with marine influence from the beginning of the sedimentation (5390 cal yr BP), based on occurrences of acritarchs, dinoflagellate cysts and microforaminiferal linings. The Phase II (3032 yr BP until 858 cal yr BP) also is characterized by a lagoonal paleoenvironment, however, presented decrease in percentage of marine elements and increase in freshwater algae record, suggesting less marine influence in the lagoonal body. In Phase III (last 856 years), underwater sedimentation prevailed, under swamp-like conditions.