Pelvic congestion syndrome and embolization of pelvic varicose veins

Abstract Pelvic congestion syndrome (PGS) is defined as chronic pelvic pain for more than 6 months associated with perineal and vulvar varicose veins caused by reflux or obstruction in gonadal, gluteal, or parauterine veins. PGS accounts for 16-31% of cases of chronic pelvic pain, and is usually diagnosed in the third and fourth decades of life. Interest in this condition among vascular surgeons has been increasing over recent years because of its association with venous insufficiency of the lower limbs. Despite its significant prevalence, PGS is still poorly diagnosed in both gynecology and angiology offices. Therefore, in this article we review the etiology and diagnosis of this condition and the outcomes of the different types of treatment available.