Phonological awareness and early reading and writing abilities in early childhood education: preliminary normative data
ABSTRACT Objective: to provide preliminary normative data for the Reading and Writing Test by type of school, and normative data for the Phonological Awareness Test by Oral Production for private schools and update their normative data available for public schools, all of which are for children in the final year of early childhood education. Methods: 267 children, in the age range of 5 years, and typical development. Identification Questionnaire for Parents, Phonological Awareness Test by Oral Production and Reading and Writing Test were used. The means of performance in the tests of the present sample were compared with the existing normative data to justify normative data provision and updating. Results: Student’s t-test revealed that the private school children outperformed those of the public schools in all measures, reinforcing the need for specific standards, according to the type of school. There were strong to very strong relationships among the variables evaluated, demonstrating a marked association between phonological awareness and initial reading and writing abilities. The Wilcoxon test revealed significant differences between the performance of the children of the present study, from both private and public schools, and the data from the Phonological Awareness Test by Oral Production standardization sample, suggesting the need to update the Phonological Awareness Test by Oral Production standards. Finally, the new normative data were presented. Conclusion: the need to make available and update the test standards used, according to the type of school, was confirmed. Further studies are necessary to expand the data presented to other age groups.