Physical, technological characterization and texture profile of grapefruit and flaxseed cookies
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Abstract The objective of this study was to develop cookies with a mix of flours (grape, golden flax, corn starch) and to evaluate their physical, technological and sensorial characteristics. Five different formulations were used to prepare the cookies at different temperatures and baking times. Analysis of pH (pre and post cooking), color, physical (specific volume, density, dough weight), technological (volume swelling, water and oil absorption index) and sensory analysis of acceptance and texture profile were accomplished. The pH ranged from 5.38 to 6.44 (pre-cooking) and from 5.31 to 6.33 (post cooking). As for color parameters, the brightness ranged from 48.39 to 55.65, while for chroma a* it ranged from 3.38 to 6.44 and for chroma b* from 13.21 to 19.46. There was a significant difference regarding specific volume, density and dough weight, but the same cannot be said for the volume of swelling. Cookies were not characterized as having high water and oil absorption. The formulation most accepted by the judges contained 6.00% of grape flour, baked at 140 °C. The Texture Profile showed that the cookies presented average values, and did not become hard, brittle, adhesive and gummy. The Principal Component Analysis showed the relationship between physical, technological and sensorial analysis with good explanation for variability and repeatability through the two main components.