Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Actinic Cheilitis in Extractive Mining Workers

Abstract The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of actinic cheilitis among extractive mining workers and factors associated with the condition, especially the relationship between clinical appearance and the length of occupational exposure to sunlight. A cross-sectional study was performed in Dona Inês, Paraíba, Brazil between 2014 and 2015. A clinical examination, clinical photography and a questionnaire were applied to 201 extractive mining workers. The T-student’s, ANOVA one-way, Fisher’s exact and Pearson chi-squared tests were performed and the significance level was set at 5%. A high prevalence of actinic cheilitis was observed (38.8%). Length of occupational exposure to sunlight in months (169.63±112.68, p=0.002) was associated with actinic cheilitis. Most workers were Caucasian (p<0.001) and aged 37.41±12.15 years (p=0.004). The time of occupational exposure to sunlight was significant in relation to the following clinical features: atrophy (225.75±97.31; p=0.024); blurred demarcation between the vermilion border of the lip and the skin (186.68±113.15; p=0.032); vertical fissures (210.09±123.07; p=0.046); white and red spotting (199.51±91.80; p=0.004); hard consistency of the lip (225.81±122.34; p=0.012). A high prevalence of actinic cheilitis was found. Age and ethnicity were associated with the presence of AC. Severe clinical presentations of actinic cheilitis were found among participants who had worked for at least 185 months (approximately 15 years) exposed to the sun.