Prevalence of anemia and determinants of hemoglobin concentration in pregnant women
Abstract Background Anemia is characterized by reduced hemoglobin concentration and, during pregnancy is associated with increased fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective To evaluate the prevalence of anemia and the determinants factors of hemoglobin concentration in pregnant women. Methods Cross-sectional study with a sample of 328 pregnant women patients of the urban Health Units of Vitória da Conquista, Bahia. We applied a questionnaire, anthropometric evaluation, and collected blood by capillary puncture for dosage of haemoglobin using a portable β-hemoglobinometer. Were considered anemic those pregnant women with hemoglobin <11 g/dL. The determinants of serum hemoglobin concentration were identified through multiple linear regression. Results We observed anemia in 18.9% of the participants, and the mean hemoglobin concentration was 11.9 g/dL (standard deviation: 1.2). We observed lower mean of hemoglobin concentration among pregnant women who started prenatal care in the second trimester (β: -0.28; 95% CI: -0.54 to -0.02) and who did not used iron supplementation (β: -0.51, 95% CI: -0.79 to -0.23), while a higher mean was observed among primigavidae women (β: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.06 to 0.62). Conclusion Anemia in the population evaluated is a mild public health problem, and hemoglobin concentrations were associated to obstetric factors and prenatal care.