Prevalence of chronic renal disease among Brazilian adults: a systematic review

Abstract Introduction Chronic kidney disease is a global public health issue but its prevalence in Brazil remains uncertain. Objective To estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease among Brazilian adults. Methods A systematic review through an electronic literature searches on MEDLINE, Embase, other databases plus microdata from national surveys. Two researchers selected, extracted data, and assessed the quality. Results We included 16 studies: national population-based using self-reported criteria found 4.57% (1998) to 1.43% (2013) prevalence; in those employing hypercreatininemia showed rate of 3.46% in Bambuí (1997) and 3.13% in Salvador (2000). Studies with non-representative samples employed clinical and laboratory criteria and showed higher prevalences: 6.26% in campaigns (2010), 8.94% in public employees (2010), 9.62% in private laboratory’s patients (2003), 27.20% in hospital (2013), and 1.35-10.64% in primary care (2011). Patients on dialysis represent 0.05% of the Brazilian population. Discussion Representative studies did not adequately assess the disease and investigations with better diagnostic criteria had convenience sampling. Heterogeneity across studies hampered the calculation of meta-analysis. Conclusion It was not possible to estimate the prevalence of chronic kidney disease patients in Brazil due to the heterogeneity of studies included in this review. The prevalence varied according to the diagnostic criteria employed among studies. Considering population criteria, 3-6 million people would have the disease. Roughly 100.000 receive dialysis in Brazil.