Prognostic Differences between Men and Women with Acute Coronary Syndrome. Data from a Brazilian Registry

Abstract Background: Gender-related differences have been reported in patients with acute coronary syndrome. The description of this comparative finding in a Brazilian registry has not yet been documented. Objective: To compare male vs. female patients regarding the baseline characteristics, coronary findings, treatment and in-hospital and long-term prognosis. Methods: This is a retrospective, multicenter and observational study that included 3,745 patients (2,437 males and 1,308 females) between May 2010 and May 2015. The primary in-hospital outcome was all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome consisted of combined events (cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, death, stroke and bleeding). The comparison between groups was performed using the chi-square and the t test, considering p < 0.05 as significant. In the long term, mortality and combined events were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier method, with a mean follow-up of 8.79 months. Results: The mean age was 60.3 years for males and 64.6 for females (p < 0.0001). The most prevalent risk factor was systemic arterial hypertension in 72.9% of the women and 67.8% of the men (p = 0.001). Percutaneous coronary intervention was carried out in 44.9% of the males and 35.4% of the females (p < 0.0001), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) was performed in 17% of the males and 11.8% of females (p < 0.0001), with a higher prevalence of three-vessel coronary artery disease in males (27.3% vs. 16.2%, p < 0.0001). Approximately 79.9% of the female patients received a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation, while in the male patients, this diagnosis was attained in 71.5% (p < 0.0001). No significant differences were observed between the groups in the short and long term, regarding both mortality and the combined events. Conclusion: Several gender-related differences were observed in patients with acute coronary syndrome regarding the demographic characteristics, coronary artery disease pattern and implemented treatment. However, the prognostic evolution was similar between the groups.