Renal arteriovenous fistula after renal biopsy: a case report and literature review

Abstract Acquired renal arteriovenous fistulas (AVF) are rare conditions in which an anomalous connection arises between the arterial and venous systems. Renal AVFs can be classified into three main groups: idiopathic, congenital, and acquired, the last of which are the most common. Incidence has been increasing, due to the growing number of renal biopsies. Although the renal biopsy procedure is relatively safe nowadays, one possible complication is formation of an AVF in the renal vascular territory. Treatment of renal AVF is widely discussed in the literature and a variety of treatment methods can be employed. We report a case of arteriovenous fistula after renal biopsy that was successfully treated with endovascular coil embolization.