Retinal changes in solid organ and bone marrow transplantation patients

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate retinal changes in patients who underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. Methods A retrospective analysis of medical records of patients evaluated from February 2009 to December 2016. All patients included underwent funduscopy. Clinical and demographic data regarding transplantation and ophthalmological changes were collected. Results A total of 126 patients were analyzed; of these, 108 underwent transplantation and 18 were in the waiting list. Transplantation modalities were heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas, combined pancreas and kidney and bone marrow transplantation. The main pre-transplantation comorbidities were diabetes and arterial hypertension. Of the 108 transplanted patients, 82 (76%) had retinal changes. All patients who underwent pancreas or combined pancreas and kidney transplantation had diabetic retinopathy. The main retinal changes found were diabetic retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, chorioretinal infections and central serous chorioretinopathy. Conclusion Retinal changes were either related to preexisting conditions, mainly diabetic retinopathy, or developed postoperatively as a complication of the surgical procedure, or as an infection related to the immunosuppressive status, or due to drug toxicity. These patients may present with complex ophthalmological changes and should be carefully evaluated prior to surgery and further followed by an ophthalmologist skilled in the management of diabetic retinopathy and posterior pole infections.