Risk factors associated with viral infections (BoHV-1 and BVDV) in crossbreed dairy herds with reproductive failures, Uberlândia, MG

ABSTRACT Viral infections are frequently associated with reproductive problems in dairy and beef cattle worldwide. The aim of this study was to verify managerial practices that may constitute risk factors associated with infection by BoHV-1 and/or BVDV in dairy herds with a history of reproductive disease in extensively reared dairy cows without a previous history of vaccination against IBR and BVD. Neutralizing antibodies anti-BoHV-1, anti-BVDV or both were detected in 62.5% (165/264), 45.1% (119/264), and 31.4% (83/264), respectively, in the samples analyzed. The risk factors associated with infection by BoHV-1 were herds with more than 100 cows, the presence of mechanical milking, the non-utilization of artificial insemination, and the infrequent acquisition of animals. Risk factors associated with BVDV were dual-purpose herds (milk and beef), these include the utilization of mechanical milking, absence of quarantine for newly acquired animals, the presence of picket calving, and the absence of artificial insemination. For simultaneous infections by both viruses (BoHV-1 and BVDV) the use of mechanical milking increased the chance of infection 3.36-fold while the use of artificial insemination reduced the risk of infection by 56% in these herds.