Seasonal variations, metal distribution and water quality in the Todos os Santos River, Southeastern Brazil: a multivariate analysis

Abstract In aquatic habitats, metal contamination from natural and anthropogenic sources continues to pose a concern for human and environmental health. Thus, it is important to complete monitoring studies to assess patterns and the extent of metal contamination in these ecosystems. The purpose of this work was to determine the concentrations of 31 chemical elements and water quality parameters of the Todos os Santos River located in the Mucuri Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. A multivariate statistical analysis was used to determine any seasonal and spatial patterns from the data. Results demonstrated that metals including Al, Fe, and Ni exceeded Brazilian and international guidelines nutrients as P also exceed water quality standards. Principal components analysis indicated distinct geographical and seasonal patterns for multiple elements with hierarchical cluster analysis confirming the observed spatial patterns of contamination in the Todos os Santos River.