Soil chemical attributes and energetic potential of agricultural residual biomasses provided by 23-year soil management
ABSTRACT Residual biomass from grains has potential as an energetic source. Biomass composition determines this potential and is related to plant nutrition, which may vary according to soil fertility. The aim of this 23-year field study was to evaluate changes in chemical attributes of a Brazilian Oxisol and in the energetic potential of oat (Avena sativa L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) residual biomasses provided by tillage systems and fertilizer rates. The trial was performed since 1989, assessing soil chemical attributes in no-tillage (NT), conventional (CT), minimum (MT) and no-tillage plus chisel plough (NT+CP), with two fertilizer rates (normal and reduced, since 1994). Oat and soybean (2012/2013) residual biomasses were collected and analyzed by its elemental composition, higher heating value (HHV) and theoretical potential for electricity production. The NT system presented higher P-resin availability; NT and NT+CP provided higher OM and total P content on soil surface. Without appropriate amounts of K and P fertilizer, P-resin and P total contents diminished mainly in 0-0.1 m depth, while exchangeable, non-exchangeable and total K+ fractions were mined even in deeper layers (0-0.3 m). The better general fertility conditions were achieved by conservative tillage systems, with normal fertilizer rate. Soil fertility levels changed chemical composition of both biomasses but had no effect on biomass HHV. Considering a system with oat and soybean grain production plus residual biomasses for energetic exploitation, it could be possible to generate 2,941 GWh·year–1, while still achieving 70% residue coverage under no-tillage maintenance.