Spontaneous Exercise-Related Coronary Artery Dissection among Young Patients Without Risk Factors or Atherosclerotic Disease
Abstract Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is considered an often underdiagnosed acute coronary syndrome, with few cases described in literature. Its association with physical exercise among young patients without risk factors or atherosclerotic disease (CAD) is even rarer. For this reason, a study was conducted on the subject, describing the clinical conditions, conduct and evolution regarding the suspicion of spontaneous exercise-related coronary artery dissection in three young patients without risk factors or CAD. Clinical conditions varied, with predominant recurrent chest pain. Age range from 20 to 31 years. All patients underwent coronary angiography, which showed no CAD but suggested SCAD. Investigations concerning other causes of coronary obstruction were negative. The right coronary artery was affected in two cases, and the anterior descending artery was affected in one case. Only one of the three patients had recurrent events within five years from the primary event. Technological advances will enable increased dissection identification in acute coronary syndromes. Improving the knowledge about the related clinical conditions is necessary, as an attempt to provide warnings and improve the suspicion of spontaneous exercise-related coronary artery dissection among those who have symptoms of coronary insufficiency, thus reducing the frequent underdiagnosis. The best treatment and prognosis for this disease remains uncertain.