Strain analysis of different diameter Morse taper implants under overloading compressive conditions

The aim of this study was to evaluate the amount of deformation from compression caused by different diameters of Morse taper implants and the residual deformation after load removal. Thirty Morse taper implants lacking external threads were divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to their diameter as follows: 3.5 mm, 4.0 mm and 5.0 mm. Two-piece abutments were fixed into the implants, and the samples were subjected to compressive axial loading up to 1500 N of force. During the test, one strain gauge remained fixed to the cervical portion of each implant to measure the strain variation. The strain values were recorded at two different time points: at the maximum load (1500 N) and 60 seconds after load removal. To calculate the strain at the implant/abutment interface, a mathematical formula was applied. Data were analyzed using a one-way Anova and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05). The 5.0 mm diameter implant showed a significantly lower strain (650.5 μS ± 170.0) than the 4.0 mm group (1170.2 μS ± 374.7) and the 3.5 mm group (1388.1 μS ± 326.6) (p < 0.001), regardless of the load presence. The strain values decreased by approximately 50% after removal of the load, regardless of the implant diameter. The 5.0 mm implant showed a significantly lower strain at the implant/abutment interface (943.4 μS ± 504.5) than the 4.0 mm group (1057.4 μS ± 681.3) and the 3.5 mm group (1159.6 μS ± 425.9) (p < 0.001). According to the results of this study, the diameter influenced the strain around the internal and external walls of the cervical region of Morse taper implants; all diameters demonstrated clinically acceptable values of strain.