Strut-and-tie models for linear and nonlinear behavior of concrete based on topological evolutionary structure optimization (ESO)

Abstract The search for representative resistant systems for a concrete structure requires deep knowledge about its mechanical behavior. Strut-and-tie models are classic analysis procedures to the design of reinforced concrete regions where there are stress concentrations, the so-called discontinuous regions of the structure. However, this model is strongly dependent of designer’s experience regarding the compatibility between the internal flow of loads, the material’s behavior, the geometry and boundary conditions. In this context, the present work has the objective of presenting the application of the strut-and-tie method in linear and non-linear on some typical structural elements, using the Evolutionary Topological Optimization Method (ESO). This optimization method considers the progressive reduction of stiffness with the removal of elements with low values of stresses. The equivalent truss system resulting from the analysis may provide greater safety and reliability.