Surface Integrity Analisys in the Hard Turning of Cemented Steel AISI 4317

This work was based on the surface integrity analysis of hardened steel, AISI 4317 case carburized, quenched and tempered with 58 HRC, obtained by a turning operation executed with CBN (cubic boron nitride) tool, varying three basic cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth). The surface integrity characterization was conducted analyzing the behavior of the surface roughness Ra, residual stresses and with layer presence after turning. Also, the cutting forces were measured. The experimental planning used was a central composite design. The results and data were statistically treated by the Statistica software, enabling the generation of a mathematical model, relating the dependent variables with the independent variables. The roughness values Ra obtained after the experiments ranged from 0.31 to 2.8 µm, providing an indication that is possible to replace grinding process by hard turning using CBN tools that could reduce machining time and costs. The hard turning process generated compressive residual stresses profiles and white layer formation, from 1.1 to 5.1 µm, on the surface of the samples. The penetration force showed the highest values for the turning forces measurements. The lowest values for the cutting parameters represented the optimized surface integrity of the AISI 4317 steel.