TARGETED AND NON-TARGETED ANALYSIS BASED ON ULTRA HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY AND FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY FOR PARIS SPECIES OF DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL ORIGINS

Various species of Paris have been used in treatments for their antitumor, antimicrobial, hemostatic, anthelmintic and immune-stimulating properties, among others. The bioactive markers of these plants including paris saponins I (PSI), paris saponins II (PSII), paris saponins VI (PSVI) and paris saponins VII (PSVII) are responsible for inhibiting nasopharyngeal carcinoma epithelial cell and ethanol-induced gastric lesions. This paper intends to comprehensively characterize the distribution of bioactive markers and illustrate the relationship between chemical profile and Paris spp.. A targeted quantitative analysis by ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) was established for the simultaneous separation and determination of PSI, PSII, PSVI and PSVII. Non-targeted analysis based on Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, with the aid of partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), was also performed. In addition, similarity analysis combining UHPLC and FT-IR spectroscopy were employed to evaluate Paris of different species and geographical origins. Quantitative analysis indicated that the content of saponins varied markedly, and the average total saponins of Paris axialis (PA) of a specific region (Baoshan) was higher than the other species. In addition, total saponins of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis (PPY) collected from Xishuangbanna was higher than the same species of other regions. Non-targeted analysis indicated that PA was different from other species and PPY in the Baoshan differed from other regions. The results indicate that comprehensive analyses for geographical origin discrimination of herbal medicines are expected to be employed in further investigations.