The Cristalino IOCG deposit: an example of multi-stage events of hydrothermal alteration and copper mineralization

<div><p>Abstract The Cristalino deposit is located 40 km east of Sossego mine, Carajás. The orebody lies along a NW-SE-striking shear zone and is mainly hosted by the Neoarchean bi-modal volcanics of the Grão Pará Group. Field work and petrographic data seconded by SEM-EDS analysis allowed recognizing an early sodic metasomatism that was followed by calcic-ferric, potassic and propylitic alterations, and finally by carbonatization. The volcanic rocks were altered under deformation regimes that changed from ductile-brittle to brittle. The deposit resulted from two mineralizing stages. The early stage took place at a greater depth and produced an ore association composed chiefly of chalcopyrite, pyrite, and magnetite as disseminations, breccia and veins particularly in Ca-Fe altered rocks. The later stage occurred at a shallower depth and formed a practically magnetite-free ore association, consisting essentially of chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± hematite in breccias and veins generated mostly during the potassic alteration. These ore associations indicate that the hydrothermal system evolved with temperature decrease and increase in fO 2, Cu/Fe ratio and sulfur activity. Cristalino is conceived as a multi-stage IOCG deposit similar to others lying in the Carajás E-W corridor of IOCG systems.</p></div>