The efficiency of curved jetties in Bay of Santos, São Paulo, Brazil: physical modeling

ABSTRACT Currently, the Port of Santos is the largest in Latin America, and its access channel is in the process of deepening, intending to reach 17 m DHN as an ultimate goal. Specifically for the maritime bar section, which is now maintained only by dredging, a significant increase in the volume of maintenance dredging is expected. The current study applied the physical modelling to evaluate the effectiveness of two curved jetties in the maintenance of depth along the inlet entrance of Santos channel, its impact on the dispersion of the plume of effluents from the existing outfall and its influence on the beach adjacent to the proposed right jetty. As a result, the jetties’ layout could maintain the access channel’s depth with a much lower volume of dredging than the current maintenance requires. It was found that the increase of 1.2 km on the outfall’s original length would not only reduce the influence of the jetties’ presence, but also improve significantly the dispersion of effluents in comparison to the original situation. Moreover, the presence of the jetties induces a marine accretion that tends to protect the region adjacent to the inlet, which is currently suffering a severe erosion process. Finally, the study shows that it is completely feasible to adopt the curved jetties to transpose the Port of Santos’ maritime bar, which may be configured as an economic and attractive option to maintain depths of 17 m DHN.