Therapeutic effect of adenosine on experimentally induced acute ulcerative colitis model in rats

Abstract Purpose To examine the therapeutic effect of external adenosine on an acetic acid-induced acute ulcerative colitis model in rats. Methods Thirty male mature rats were divided into three groups as control, acute colitis (AC) and AC+adenosine group (AC+AD). AC was induced by rectal administration of 4% acetic acid (AA). 5mg/kg/day adenosine was performed i.p for 4 weeks to AC+AD group. Rectum and colon were excised for microscopic and histopathological histopathologic evaluations, and immunohistochemical analysis of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB). Blood samples were collected for biochemical detection of TNF-α, Pentraxin-3 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. Results AC group had generalized hyperemia and hemorrhage with increased macroscopic and histopathological scores compared with control (P <0.0001) while adenosine treatment decreased these scores significantly (P <0.001), with reduced distribution of disrupted epithelium, leukocyte infiltrates, and focal hemorrhage. AC group showed significantly increased immunoexpression of NF-kB in rectum, plasma and tissue levels of TNF-α, plasma Pentraxin-3 and MDA levels (P <0.0001) while adenosine reduced these levels (P < 0.05). Conclusion Adenosine appears to promote healing of colon and rectum exposed to AA-induced AC, suggesting a boosting effect of adenosine on the intestinal immune system to cure ulcerative colitis.