TpTe and TpTe/QT: novel markers to predict sudden cardiac death in ESRD?
ABSTRACT Introduction: Reliable markers to predict sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD) remain elusive, but echocardiogram (ECG) parameters may help stratify patients. Given their roles as markers for myocardial dispersion especially in high risk populations such as those with Brugada syndrome, we hypothesized that the Tpeak to Tend (TpTe) interval and TpTe/QT are independent risk factors for SCD in ESRD. Methods: Retrospective chart review was conducted on a cohort of patients with ESRD starting hemodialysis. Patients were US veterans who utilized the Veterans Affairs medical centers for health care. Average age of all participants was 66 years and the majority were males, consistent with a US veteran population. ECGs that were performed within 18 months of dialysis initiation were manually evaluated for TpTe and TpTe/QT. The primary outcomes were SCD and all-cause mortality, and these were assessed up to 5 years following dialysis initiation. Results: After exclusion criteria, 205 patients were identified, of whom 94 had a prolonged TpTe, and 61 had a prolonged TpTe/QT interval (not mutually exclusive). Overall mortality was 70.2% at 5 years and SCD was 15.2%. No significant difference was observed in the primary outcomes when examining TpTe (SCD: prolonged 16.0% vs. normal 14.4%, p=0.73; all-cause mortality: prolonged 55.3% vs. normal 47.7%, p=0.43). Likewise, no significant difference was found for TpTe/QT (SCD: prolonged 15.4% vs. normal 15.0%, p=0.51; all-cause mortality: prolonged 80.7% vs. normal 66.7%, p=0.39). Conclusions: In ESRD patients on hemodialysis, prolonged TpTe or TpTe/QT was not associated with a significant increase in SCD or all-cause mortality.