Vehicular emissions estimate in the Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, metropolitan region in 2010

ABSTRACT In Brazil and worldwide, the passenger and cargo transportation sectors have decisively been responsible for the increased emissions of air pollutants, which cause serious damages for the environment and human health, as well. Thus, many studies have been carried out to model and simulate pollutant emissions through methodologies and/or specific tools. The vehicle fleet in the state of Ceará has increased by 169% over the last 10 years and, until now, the amount of pollutants released from circulating fleet of the Fortaleza Metropolitan Region (FMR) is unknown. In this context, vehicular exhaust emissions for the FMR were estimated for the year 2010. Emission estimates of carbon monoxide (CO), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), particulate matter (PM), and aldehydes (RCHO) were performed through the bottom-up methodology. In general, it was observed that motorcycles emitted high amounts of pollutants, mainly CO, NOx and MP, due to the large number of vehicles in the region. Otto cycle vehicles accounted for more than 90% of CO, NMHC and RCHO total emissions, while Diesel cycle vehicles emitted more than 85% of NOx and PM total emissions.