Volatile organic compounds (VOC) variation in Croton floribundus (L.) Spreng. related to environmental conditions and ozone concentration in an urban forest of the city of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil

ABSTRACT Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are emitted by vegetation in response to different kinds of stress, such as herbivory, environmental conditions and air pollutants. The aim of this study was to identify the VOC emitted by seedlings of Croton floribundus (L.) Spreng. exposed to a polluted environment and analyze the relationship among classes of compounds emitted, ozone levels and changes in climate conditions. Two exposures were carried out, one in winter (June to August 2012) and another in summer (January to April 2013), in the Parque Estadual das Fontes do Ipiranga, city of São Paulo, São Paulo State, Brazil. We identified 26 compounds that are grouped into oxygenates, aromatics, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The emission of sesquiterpenes was inhibited in summer, while those of the oxygenated and aromatic compounds were induced. The emission of volatiles was correlated to ozone levels (AOT 40). Our results suggest that the levels of atmospheric ozone detected in the summer can increase the induction of oxygenates and reduce the emission of monoterpenes in C. floribundus plants.