Wastewater treatment by overland flow: removal of metals
ABSTRACT In order to evaluate the removal and concentration of the metals cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) in municipal wastewater, we conducted field tests using the method of overland flow under two rates of surface application, 0.30 and 0.20 m3.m-1.h-1, on a ramp of 4.25 × 40 m with a slope of 3.5%, planted with Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.). In samples collected during the 15-month study, only Cu, Cr and Pb exceeded the discharge limit according to the National Environment Council (CONAMA) Resolution n. 430/2011 (BRASIL, 2011). The application rate does not influence the surface removal of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and Pb; however, higher Zn removal occurred by applying rates of surface application of 0.30 m3.m-1.h-1. The rate of application does not influence the incorporation of Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn in the biomass, but greater incorporation of Pb occurred when applying 0.20 m3.m-1.h-1.