Wheel-surface model parameters estimation: sand humidity influence on traction effort of all-terrain unmanned vehicle

Abstract The aim of the paper is to present the experimental results for material model of the sand, case of wet and dry probe. Since traction and side forces derivation methodology and tire-round interaction models for on-road vehicles are widely described, there is a lack of methods for off-road vehicles. The methodology, presented in this work, includes test in various ground conditions and different driving direction. Test results, presented in the paper were acquired for dry and humid sand, for various tire tilt angle. Traction and side forces were acquired and then will be used for black-box model parameters identification of the wheel-ground interaction.