Yield Losses and Economic Threshold of GR® F2 Volunteer Corn in Bean
ABSTRACT: Volunteer corn has high competitive capacity with bean, and the degree of interference varies as a function of corn density and origin (individual plant or clump). This study aimed to quantify bean yield losses under interference with densities of individual plants and clumps (seven plants at the same point) of GR® F2 volunteer corn and calculate the economic threshold (ET). Two experiments were carried out in a randomized blocks design with three replicates in Passo Fundo, RS, Brazil. The studied volunteer corn densities were 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 individual plants and clumps m-2. The bean yield was assessed and calculated the yield losses (%) in response to volunteer corn interference. The yield loss data were fitted to the rectangular hyperbola model to generate the parameters for ET determining. ET was calculated as a function of cost (US$ ha-1) and control efficiency (%) of volunteer corn, the price paid for bean (US$ kg-1), and bean yield (kg ha-1). Interferences caused by densities of volunteer corn of 0.5, 1, and 2 individual plants and clumps m-2 in bean resulted in yield losses of 9%, 17%, and 30%, and 33%, 51%, and 70%, respectively. The ET of volunteer corn on bean was, on average, 0.21 individual plants m-2 and 0.04 clumps m-2. Increases in yield and price paid for beans, higher efficiency of volunteer corn control, and a decrease in costs of control promote a reduction in ET. Interferences caused by clumps resulted in higher bean yield losses than individual plants.