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Analysis of biomechanics in athletes with disabilities: a systematic and narrative review

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posted on 2023-03-18, 07:03 authored by Jaqueline Lopes, Kamylla Albuquerque Guimarães, Simone Maria Lopes, Sany Martins Pérego, Claudia Andrade

Abstract Introduction Specifically in athletes with disabilities, investigations and biomechanical understanding seem to be even more relevant, as they provide data on how a certain type of disability limits sports practice and also describe parameters that allow the suggestion of relevant adaptations capable of guaranteeing a higher level comfort to practitioners. Objective To describe patterns of biomechanical behavior during exercise in athletes with disabilities, and to discuss possible relationships between the type of disability and the sport practiced. Methods This study performed a search in five electronic databases from the oldest records available until July 2020 using a search strategy that combined terms related to "athletes with disabilities" and "biomechanical analysis." Inclusion criteria: population (amateur or professional athletes with disabilities), intervention (sports practice), study design (observational), outcome (having evaluated biomechanics during sports practice). The biomechanical variables of interest included kinematic, kinetic, or electromyographic outcome measures. Results Tewnty-six articles met the inclusion criteria (n = 705 participants). Biomechanical analysis showed that there is a greater inclination in the angle of the head and an increase in the kinematic variables in blind athletes, which result in less distance, speed, and performance; compensatory body patterns, reduced mooring strength, speed, joint amplitude, and reduced final performance are observed in amputated limbs of amputees; and there was a strong correlation between the subject's functional classification and kinematic parameters in wheelchair athletes, with this being proportional to the level of impairment. Conclusion The outcomes demonstrated that the type of disability and the level of functional limitation are proportionally related to biomechanics in athletes with disabilities.

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