Cellular consequences of small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 12: mosaicism in daughter and father
Constitutional genomic imbalances are known to cause malformations, disabilities, neurodevelopmental delay, and dysmorphia and can lead to dysfunctions in the cell cycle. In extremely rare genetic conditions such as small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMC), it is important to understand the cellular consequences of this extra marker, as well the factors that contribute to their maintenance or elimination through successive cell cycles and phenotypic impact. The study of chromosomal mosaicism provides a natural model to characterize the effect of aneuploidy on genome stability and compare cells with the same genetic background and environment exposure, but differing in the presence of sSMC. Here, we report the functional characterization of different cell lines from two familial patients with mosaic sSMC derived from chromosome 12. We performed studies of proliferation dynamics, stability, and variability of these cells using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), and conventional staining. We also quantified the telomere-related genomic instability of sSMC cells using 3D telomeric profile analysis by quantitative-FISH. sSMC cells exhibited differences in the cell cycle dynamics compared to normal cells. First, the sSMC cells exhibited lower proliferation index and higher frequency of SCE than normal cells, associated with a higher level of chromosomal instability. Second, sSMC cells exhibited more telomeric-related genomic instability. Lastly, the differences of sSMC cells distribution among tissues could explain different phenotypic repercussions observed in patients. These results will help in our understanding of the sSMC stability, maintenance during cell cycle, and the cell cycle variables involved in the different phenotypic manifestations.