Diversity of the diterpenes in the leaves of Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae) and their cytotoxicities
The phytochemical investigation of the hexane extract which was obtained from the leaves of Xylopia laevigata (Annonaceae) produced six terpenes. Among these, five diterpenes named abieta-7,13-dien-3-one, ent-7β-acetoxy-16β-hydroxy-kaurane, 4-epi-cupressic acid, powerol, and labdorffianic acid B, and one oxygenated sesquiterpene, spathulenol. This is the first time these isolated diterpenes from X. laevigata have been described. The different structures belong to the abietane, kaurane, and labdane diterpenoids, and are indicative of the chemical diversity found in X. laevigata. Moreover, the diterpene ent-7β-acetoxy-16β-hydroxy-kaurane is reported herein for the first time as a natural product, and 4-epi-cupressic acid, powerol, and labdorffianic acid B are reported for the first time in the Annonaceae family. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by extensive analyses using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with MS. The cytotoxic activities of compounds abieta-7,13-dien-3-one, spathulenol, 4-epi-cupressic acid, and powerol were evaluated against tumor and non-tumor cell lines, in which spathulenol was found to be the most active, mainly against K562 with an IC50 value of 17.20 μmol L-1.