Effects of a structured education program on glycemic control in type 1 diabetes

ABSTRACT Objective Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and education is known to play a key role in managing this disease. This study addresses the effects of a structured education program (SEP) on self-care in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The aim was to evaluate the effect of a SEP on glycemic control, knowledge, and skills associated with diabetes care in subjects with T1DM. Subjects and methods A total of 47 adults with T1DM were followed up for 20 months (32 participated in the SEP and 15 served as a control group). The SEP consisted of workshops, individualized care, 24-hour distant support, and a questionnaire assessing knowledge of diabetes care. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were measured before and after the SEP implementation. Results Compared with pre-SEP levels, the mean HbA1c levels decreased by approximately 20% (21 mmol/mol) at 1 year, with a further 11% reduction (10 mmol/mol) observed 8 months later (p < 0.001). Knowledge about diabetes care increased by 37% between the pre-SEP and post-SEP questionnaires (p < 0.005). Conclusion Relevant improvements occurred after SEP activities. The sustained decrease in HbA1c levels and the overall increase in knowledge and confidence regarding diabetes care reinforce the importance, necessity, and positive outcomes of a SEP intervention in T1DM.