Extended use of poultry manure as a nutrient source for flood-irrigated rice crop
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate changes in the soil chemical properties, nitrogen use efficiency, and grain yield of flood-irrigated rice fields after the addition of poultry manure during five years. Trials were carried out in a randomized complete block design, with three replicates. The treatments were: chemical fertilizers, N-P2O5-K2O; control, no fertilizers; and poultry manure doses, 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 Mg ha-1. Poultry manure increased soil pH, base saturation, and phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and zinc contents more than the chemical fertilizers. Adding poultry manure to the soil increased N ammonification (35 mg kg-1 NH4 +-N) from the first to the fourth week after rice was sown. The exclusive use of poultry manure was not sufficient to provide adequate nutrition to rice plants after the decrease in NH4 +-N content in the soil. The cumulative N uptake by plants and rice yield were lower with poultry manure application than with the chemical fertilizers. Adding poultry manure to flood-irrigated rice fields for five years alters soil chemical properties, improves fertility, does not favor nitrogen use efficiency by rice plants, and promotes a lower grain yield than the chemical fertilizers.